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Die grammatischen Korrelationen GraLiS 1999

Sammelband - Сборник - Zbornik

Grazer Linguistische Slawistentage (GraLiS-1999) 4. - 6. November 1999

Vorwort

Der Begriff der Korrelation stellt ein interdisziplinäres Phänomen dar und wird als solches im Zuge der ganzen Wissenschaftsgeschichte, vor allem der Philosophie, der Logik, der Mathematik und der Linguistik untersucht. Es existiert sogar die Ansicht, daß die Kategorie der Beziehung eine der ersten Stufen in der Erkenntnis sei. Bei Aristoteles tritt sie als eine der 10 Kategorien auf: Substanz, Quantität, Qualität, Relation, Ort, Zeit, Lage, Haben, Tun, Leiden. Der Schwerpunkt der Erforschung des Begriffs Beziehung liegt in der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts. Zu Beginn unseres Jahrhunderts (1914) erschien in Graz ein Buch, welches selten in der Literatur erwähnt wird. Der Autor ist Alexander Horwath, und das Buch trägt den Titel: „Metaphysik der Relationen". Das Werk ist insofern wertvoll als es genau die Frage nach dem Inhalt der Beziehung beleuchtet, d.h. ihren gnoseologischen Aspekt. Noch ein berühmter Mann, der in Graz wohnte, steht mit diesem Thema in Verbindung. Es handelt sich dabei um den Astronomen Johannes Kepler (1571-1630). Er arbeitete in Graz im Gymnasium als Lehrer der Mathematik, wo er auch seinen ersten großen Aufsatz „Mysterium cosmographicum" („Weltgeheimnis") schrieb. Kepler begründete das heliozentrische Weltbild durch drei Gesetze, welche der Vorstellung über die gleichmäßigen runden Planetenbewegungen ein Ende setzten. Die Vorstellung Johannes Keplers über das Universum weist einige Berührungspunkte zum Thema Grammatische Beziehungen auf, welche den Schwerpunkt dieses Sammelbandes bilden.

Auf grammatikalischer Ebene treten die Korrelationen aus unterschiedlichen Gründen auf. Die Sprache gibt eine begrenzte Auswahl an grammatikalischen Einheiten vor, welche ein sehr breites System von grammatischen Bedeutungen ausdrücken. In der Sprache gibt es keine Ausgewogenheit in der Zahl der Formen, der Kategorien, der Bedeutungen und der Funktionen. Deshalb erhalten einzelne grammatische Einheiten eine sozusagen zweifache, dreifache etc. „Beladung". Die grammatischen Relationen werden als Verwendung der Formen in primären und sekundären Funktionen und als Realisierung der verschiedenen Kombinationen ausgedrückt.

Die grammatischen Korrelationen basieren auf den Erscheinungen der Anziehung und Abstoßung. Unter Anziehung versteht man den Prozeß, in dem bestimmte grammatische Einheiten aus einem Feld in ein anderes übergehen. Bei der Abstoßung handelt es sich um einen Prozeß des Widerstands gegen das Eindringen der fremden grammatischen Einheiten in das Feld. Ein wichtiger Aspekt der Korrelation ist die semantische Kompatibilität (die Verwendung einer grammatischen Einheit anstelle einer anderen bei minimaler Bedeutungsänderung).

In diesem Sammelband sind die Vorträge veröffentlicht, die auf den Grazer Linguistischen Slawistentagen GraLiS-1999 zum Thema "Die grammatischen Korrelationen" (Graz, 4.-6. 1999) gehalten oder zu dieser Thematik für diesen Sammelband vorbereitet wurden.

Graz, Dezember 1999
Branko Tošović

I - Korrelation als allgemeiner Begriff

Bernhard Hurch (Graz)

Anmerkungen zum Begriff der Korrelation: Geschichte, Phonologie und Morphologie

Some remarks on the concept of correlation: history, phonology, and morphology

The present paper deals with the exploration of correlations as a scientific term in linguistics, reducing it to the strict meaning which was given to it in classical Praguean phonology, specifically by Trubetzkoy and Jakobson. A second aim of the paper was to sketch some of the problems originating with the transposition of this term from phonology to morphology by Jakobson. It shows, moreover, how this term gets gradually irrelevant in generative phonology and finally assumes that the already mentioned problematic parallelism between phonology and morphology in structuralism explains the analogous difficulties that arise between phonology and morphology in naturalness theory. Finally it briefly sketches a model of natural phonology in which correlations are not considered to be a structural prime of the theory, but rather an epiphenomenon, as they plausibly have to be analyzed as the result of general tendencies producing phonemic systems (paradigmatic processes).

Bernhard Hurch

Branko Tošović (Graz)

Отношение

Relation

In der Sprache kommen drei Makrodenotate zum Ausdruck – die Gegenstände (konkret und abstrakt), ihre Merkmale (die Eigenschaften) und die Beziehungen. Die Begriffe und die Verbindungen im Dreieck „Gegenstand – Eigenschaft – Beziehung“ erfahren unterschiedliche Erklärungen in einzelnen wissenschaftlichen Disziplinen, zu allererst in der Philosophie, der Logik und der Sprachwissenschaft. Im vorliegenden Artikel widmet der Au-tor sein Hauptaugenmerk der Kategorie der Beziehung in verschiedenen wissenschaftlichen Disziplinen.

Branko Tošović

Karin Tafel (Bochum)

Zur Verwendung des Korrelationsbegriffs in der Sprachwissenschaft (und in anderen Wissenschaften)

Карин Тафель (Бохум)

Понятие корреляции в языкознании и в других науках

Корреляция является в языкознании частотным, но одновременно очень гетегоренным понятием, которое испольуется для обозначения всевозможных разновидностей отношений, однако без их точной характеристики. В связи с этим стоит попробовать провести сравнение с применением (применениями) понятия корреляции в других науках – в частности в статистике, которая указывает на возможность более точного определения вида и степени корреляции в соответствующем контексте.

Г. А. Золотова (Москва)

Соотношение формы, значения и функции в грамматике

G. А. Zolotova (Moskcow)

The Interrelation Between Form, Meaning, and Funktion in Grammar
„Communicatif Grammar of the Russian", the concept of which is presented in the report concidered text as the main obj З олотова, Г. А. ect of research, as the process of communication is realised by mean of text and it is also in a text all units of language perform their potentialities. Systematization of Grammar is based not on the dichotomy of ‘form-meaning’, but on the triple interdependence of form, meaning and function. Function is viewed as the mode of participation of an element in the construction of the whole – of the communicate. They are two kinds of functions: constructive-syntactic and compositional-syntactic. Then a successif way is observed from the syntactic form of a word to the composition of a text.

Г. А. Золотова

Peter Grzybek (Graz)

pdf Randbemerkungen zur Korrelation von Wort- und Silbenlänge im Kroatischen

Some marginal remarks on the correlation between word length and syllable length in Croatian

Based on the assumption that the notion of ‘correlation’ tends to be used in an increasingly blurred manner, an operational understanding of correlation is presented which is used in the field of statistics. Consequently, a correlation concerns the dependence between the extension of two features (variables) of a given individual, process, etc. By way of one example, the correlation between word length and syllable length in Croatian, it is shown that simple linear regression models are not adequate for its theoretical description. Rather, more complex non- linear regression models turn out to be efficient, two of which are compared to each other. Since only lexicon material is analyzed here, it is emphasized that different models are likely to be more adequate for the description of such linguistic material, which additionally includes sentence and/or text structures as influencing parameters.

II – Lexikalisch-grammatische und kognitiv-semantische Korrelationen

Ю. Д. Апресян (Москва)

pdf Семантическая мотивация несемантических свойств лексем

J. D. Apresjan (Moscow)
Semantic motivation of non-semantic properties of lexemes

The paper aims at demonstrating that many (though not all) of the non-semantic properties of a lexeme are motivated by and can sometimes be predicted from its lexical meaning. The meaning of a lexeme is represented by an analytical definition formulated in a reduced, simplified and standardized sub-language of the object language. The ânon-semantic properties of lexemesâ in the present context comprise (a) morphological paradigms in their formal and semantic aspects, (b) syntactic properties (government, circumstantial modifiers, passive valencies, sentence types), (c) communicative (theme-rheme) articulation of the utterance and its prosodic features, (d) selectional constraints, (e) paradigmatic relations with other lexemes in the vocabulary at large (synonyms, antonyms, converse terms, derivatives and the like). Three issues of systematic lexicography are considered from this perspective: (1) correlations between the lexical meanings of a large class of lexemes and their nonsemantic properties (the problem of a systematic description of the vocabulary as a whole);(2) the possibility of generating derived lexemes of a word from its basic lexeme (the problem of a systematic description of a single word); (3) correlations between the lexical meaning of a single lexeme and all of its linguistically relevant non-semantic properties (the problem of a systematic description of a separate lexeme).

 J. D. Apresjan

Wolfgang Eismann (Graz)

pdf Korrelation und Klassifikation in der Phraseologie

Correlation and classification in phraseology

This article is on the topics of correlation and classification in phraseology. It deals with problems of traditional and modern classifications in the paradigm of structuralism, as well as with some recent attempts to overcome this paradigm. Finally, difficulties of classification based on assumptions correlating idioms with their supposed mental representations are discussed.

Wolfgang Eismann

Sabine Dönninghaus (Bochum)

pdf Attributsmetaphern als fundamentale kognitiv-semantische Kategorie und ihre morphosyntaktische Manifestation

Дённинггаус Сабине (Басел)

Атрибутивная метафора как фундаментальная когнитивно-семантическая категория и ее морфологическое проявление

Способность к категоризации является фундаментальным достижением человека. Лингвисты, используя различные критерии, пытались и пытаются выделить разнообразные категории, чтобы выявить механизмы и принципы системности языка и его употребления. Среди грамматических, морфологических, синтаксических и других известных категорий есть и когнитивно-семантические категории. Концептуальные метафоры, или метафорические концепты когнитивно-семнтического подхода, выступают в виде одной из таких когнитивно-семантических категорий. Одним из видов концептуальных метафор является атрибутивная концептуальная метафора. В данной статье на примере одной из таких концептуальных метафор исследуются отношения между морфо-синтаксическим, семантическим иконцептуальным планами.

Sabine Dönninghaus

III – Morphologische Korrelationen

Т. Н. Молошная (Москва)

pdf Корреляция категории определенности/неопределенностии категорий числа, лица и рода глагола и современном русском языке

T. N. Moloshnaja (Moscow)
Correlations between the Category of Definiteness / Indefiniteness and verbal Categories of Number, Person and Gender in contemporary literary in Russian

The paper deals with correlations between semantic category âdefiniteness / indefinitenessâ and grammatical verb categories of number, person and gender in contemporary literary Russian. The correlations become apparent in indefinite-personal, generalized personal, impersonal and some negative sentences.

Т. Н. Молошная

Radoje Simić (Beograd)

pdf Gramatičke korelacije i problem ‘kategorije stanja’ u srpskom jeziku

Die grammatischen Korrelationen und das Problem der ‘Zustandskategorie’ in der serbischen Sprache

Der Autor beschäftigt sich mit der sog. ‘Zustandskategorie’ in der serbischen Sprache. Sich auf V. Vinogradov und die älteren russischen Autoren berufend, stellt er zunächst fest, daß die ‘Zustandskategorie’ nach ihrer Position im Satz bestimmt wird (sie hat prädikativische Funktion) und betrachtet schließlich den Status dieser Einheiten im System der Wortarten. Der Autor zieht den Schluß, daß unter den slawischen Sprachen eigentlich nur das serbische žao im Satztypus Žao mi je oder Milanu je bilo žao die Bezeichnung einer besonderen Wortkategorie verdient. Das bedeutet, daß in den slawischen Sprachen eine eigene syntaktische Position als Bedingung für das Bestehen der ‘Zustandskategorie’ vorhanden ist, daß jene jedoch erst in den ersten Anfängen und lexikalisch noch völlig ungeformt ist.

Branko Tošović

Anke Levin-Steinmann (Leipzig)

pdf Der bulgarische Renarrativ und der Mythos von der selbständigen grammatischen Kategorie

Анке Левин-Штайнманн (Лейпциг)

Болгарские пересказывательные формы и миф о самостоятельнойграмматической категории

В данной статье делается попытка доказать, что в болгарском языке предикативное употребление бессвязочного л-причастия в пересказательной функции нельзя считать особым явлением в рамках грамматической категории ‘наклонение’, так как ни с семантической, ни с грамматической точки зрения не выполняются необходимые для такогорешения проблемы критерии. Как проведенные мной исследования показали, в основу всех употреблений данной морфологической формы как пересказательного, адмиративного, конклузивного и другихзначений, легло значение состояния, вытекающего из начатого в прошлом действия ивыполняющего таким образом роль семантического инварианта.

Поскольку данное значение является и семантическим ядром времен перфекта и плюсквамперфекта, справедливо исходить из того, что соответствующие морфологические формы как простого, так и усиленного путем прибавления бил бессвязочного лпричастия можно рассмотреть как разновидности данных времен.

Branko Tošović

Milan Šipka (Sarajevo)

pdf Korelacije značenja i oblika duge i kratke množine imenica muškog roda u srpskom i/ili hrvatskom jeziku

Semantic and formal correlation in extended and regular plural forms of serbian and/or croatian masculine nouns

In Serbian and/or Croatian a majority of one-syllable as well as some two- and rarely three-syllable Ø ending masculine nouns have the -ov-/-ev- extension in their plural form. However, numerous nouns from these category can also have a regular plural form. This paper is an analysis of the semantic and formal correlation of these nouns.

All analyzed cases fall into the following three semantic categories:

  1. a. Identical meaning of the extended and regular plural forms, as in: brci – brkovi 'moustaches',
  2. b. Stylistic difference between the extended and regular plural forms, whereby the regular plural form is used in poetic discourse only, as in: bogovi – bozi 'gods',
  3. c. Semantic difference between the extended and regular plural forms. as in: akti (files, documents, actions) – aktovi (nudes).

The author stresses that this phenomenon is not specific for Serbian and/or Croatian pointing at the Russian examples like: cvety 'flowers' – cveta 'colors'.

Milan Šipka

Hanka Vajzović (Sarajevo)

pdf Korelacija forme i značenja (na primjeru turcizama)

Correlation of the form and the meaning (Based on the examples of words of Turkish origin)

This work analysis correlative ties:

  • In the relation of the form and the meaning
  • In the field of word formation – primarily, but as well within basic lexical and semantic units in a degree which is necessarily imposed by requirements of the analysis
  • With loanwords, more concretely with the words of Turkish origin as markedly assimilated and striking, but also as the most numerous level of lexis of the foreign origin in Bosnian\ Croat\ Serb language.

Apart from the words of Turkish origin, the analysis, logically, includes other words, which are creating any lexical and semantic relation with words of Turkish origin or are establishing correlation in formative possibilities.
Correlative ties are being observed in the framework of separate lexical and semantic processes: polysemia, synonymy, homonymy and antonymia. Correlative ties are being seek in the relation:

  1. between two basic words
  2. between basic word and its formative family
  3. between units of two parallel formative families of basic words which are characterized by specific relation, and from which at least one is the word of Turkish origin.

Hanka Vajzović

Pavol Žigo (Bratislava)

pdf Категория времени и еe отношение к понятию корреляции

The categorie of time and the correlation

Semantic structur of the adverbial temporal clauses was highly differentiated. In our contribution the individual semantic types are characterized on the basis of studying the metrical and topological properties of time - homogeneity, isotrophy, one-orderliness, onedimensionality, contituity, one-directionality and infinitude. Basic logical principles - simultaneity of the action of the main clause, anteriority of the action of the adverbial temporal clause and the succesion of the action of the adverbial temporal clause were expressed by sentences with a adverbial temporal clause. The 21 types is characterized by specific degrees of expressing of the topological properties of timewhich are represented by characteristic elements of the language system. Semantic structure of adverbial temporal clauses presents a reflection of logical regularities in ones conscionsne.

Pavol Žigo

IV – Aspektkorrelationen

Andrzej Boguslawski (Warszawa)

pdf Die slawische Aspektkorrelation und Iterativität

The correlation of aspects with negation and the problem of iterativity in Russian

It is well known that negation has a strong influence over the choice of verbal aspects in Russian. But it is important to describe this correlation in more definite terms. The autor’s claim is that the perfective forms without negation denote (with rare exceptions) events which make up a fundamental ontological category; the denial of presence of necessary conditions of an event type within a time interval as related to an n-tuple of objects is expressed by the corresponding imperfective forms with negation. The positive imperfective forms deny the absence of the respective necessary conditions. This yields, under appropriate pragmatic and contextual circumstances, the many different uses of the aspectual forms. In this way the author hopes to achieve a desirable generalisation in the theory of aspects. In order to substantiate his theory, the author examines two special cases of the application of aspectual forms: first, with frequency indicatons, second, with indications of multiplicity / non-multiplicity of an event type in a time interval, i.e. two cases of iterative constructions.

Andrzej Boguslawski (Warszawa)

Е. В. Падучева (Москва)

pdf О корреляции между видом и диатезой

E. V. Paducheva (Мoscow)
On correlation between diathesis and aspect in Russian

Grammatical aspect in Russian is known to be connected with the idea of result. Thus, a suggestion seems a priori plausible that a correlation exists between the participant Result present in the concept of the situation implied by a verb and the possibility of using the verb in this or that aspect or, more precisely, in this or that aspectual meaning. We demonstrate that such a correlation, in fact, exists. Several semantic classes of verbs are considered – 1) verbs of choice, such as vybrat’ ‘choose’; 2) phasal verbs, such as konchit’ ‘finish’; 3) verbs of affecting a mental state of the other person, such as ob’jasnit’ ‘explain’; 4) verbs of creation of the intellectual result, such as opredelit’ ‘define’. Verbs of these semantic classes cannot be interpreted as denoting an ongoing activity when used in the diathesis including the participant Result. For verbs of creation of a physical object their compatibility with the participant Result in the Imperfective (zaplesti / zapletat’ kosu ‘to braid / plait one’s hair; do up one’s hair in a braid’; kosit’seno ‘to make hay’, lit. ‘*t o mow hay’) is explained by a radical resructuring of meaning.

Branko Tošović

Arto Mustajoki (Helsinki)

pdf Аспектуальность в теории функционального синтаксиса

Aspectuality in the Theory of Functional Syntax

In the research on aspectuality, it happens quite too often that linguists do not properly differentiate aspectuality as a general semantic category from aspectuality as a linguistic (formal) category of Slavonic languages. We are here not dealing with a minor terminological detail but rather with an important theoretical distinction, which has some obvious consequences: for one thing, verbal aspects can have non-aspectual meanings, and, secondly, aspectual meanings can be expressed by means other than verb aspects. The latter fact has been discussed in a couple of papers, but the first fact, the use of verb aspects in non-aspectual meanings, has not been systematically investigated in the linguistic literature. The aim of this paper is to shed some first thin streaks of light upon this question. The theoretical background of this paper is the Theory of Functional Syntax (TFS) developed at the Slavonic and Baltic department of the University of Helsinki. TFS is a model for describing and comparing different languages "from meaning to form". The main goal here is to find a new fruitful combination of strong theoretical background and concrete practical applications.

Arto Mustajoki

М. Я. Гловинская (Москва)

pdf Аспектуальные корреляции на периферии видовой системы

М. Я. Гловинская

Luka Szucsich (Leipzig)

pdf Sachverhaltsverläufe, Aspektualität und temporale Adverbiale. Temporale Gebundenheit und ihre grammatischen Korrelate im Russischen, Deutschen und Finnischen

Luka Szucsich

László Jászay (Budapest)

pdf Заметки по некоторым проблемам видовой соотносительности русского глагола

László Jászay

V – Syntaktische Korrelationen